Chapter / Rule 5 - Eat 30 to 50 grams of fiber each day
Well this one is easy enough - a brief 3 pages and pretty simple to understand. Fiber is filling, fiber can slow digestion and generally is found in foods you'll want to be eating anyway. (Fruits and vegetables, that is)
Those are enough reasons to be eating fiber right there. Bam, done. However, probably to take up some space, he goes on to talk about other health benefits to fiber: lessen the risk of certain cancers, decreases cholesterol and prevent onset of type 2 diabetes.
The issues with the study he cites to back up these claims is the same issue we run into with studies from previous chapters. Correlation does not mean causation. The study used 7-day food records to determine a participant's general intake of cereal fiber, refined and whole-grains. They then cross-examined this information with other factors such as fasting glucose and cholesterol. This is an on-going and long-term study.
Unfortunately, just like with the Nurse's Study we discussed before, asking participants to measure and accurately report their food intake is often very inaccurate and unreliable. As well, people who are more health-conscious tend to eat more fiber and whole-grains. This does not mean that fiber and whole-grains are what is causing the decreased chances of cancer or type 2 diabetes. This also doesn't mean that fiber and whole-grains are what cause the participant to lose or keep a lower BMI. It could be do a whole host of other lifestyle factors that are outside the scope of the study.
Moral: Fiber can increase satiety, slow digestion and is often found in foods you would want to eat while trying to improve your health. However, fiber itself is not a magic weight-loss ingredient. Not everyone does well on the same amounts of fiber, especially those with pre-existing GI issues.
Chapter // Rule 6 - Eat apples and berries every single day. Every. Single. Day!
I haven't even read the chapter yet. This is just my initial reaction from the title:
"That sounds like bullshit."
Okay, off to read the chapter. Be right back.
All right, I read the chapter and it's not really as bad as I thought it'd be. We actually start out quite reasonably:
"[apples and berries] have lots of desirable vitamins, all kinds of micronutrients, and lots of fiber..."
All true. Apples and berries, among other fruits and vegetables, contain a lot of the above. That's why they're considered good foods for your overall health and weight loss.
However, why he limits it to apples and berries and not say, apples and grapes or berries and peaches or garlic and cucumbers, I'm not really sure. He states the reason for apples and berries is due to their high anthocyanin content. While phytochemicals (what anthocyanin falls under) have been found to be anti-inflammatory, I don't know if that is a good enough reason to deign foods that contain high amounts of it 'non-negotiable' for weight loss.
Other foods that are high in anthocyanin that aren't apples or berries:
- Red Cabbage
- Black soybeans
So why is this chapter not called "Eat Red Cabbage and Carrots every day" or something else? He mentions a study where participants who ate whole apples before a meal ate 15% less than participants who ate applesauce or fiber-spiked apple juice. I'll agree that apples are very filling - likely due to their high fiber / water content which tends to get degraded as you mush / liquidate it. Anecdotally, apples are one of the most filling foods to me. However you could probably replicate that same study with watermelon or cucumbers or any other high-water, high-fiber food.
Moral: Once again, I agree that eating fruits and vegetables are generally a good idea. However, to specifically call out apples and berries as THE required food to eat everyday doesn't make sense. If it's just for the reasons of phytochemicals, any of the other foods listed above would serve just as well. And again, you could still lose weight without including these in your diet at all.
Chapter // Rule 7 - No carbs after lunch
I vehemently disagree with this rule. This is a short chapter, and the weak reason he gives for this rule is:
"Carbs are forms of sugar, and sugar cues the pancreas to make more insulin, which in turn triggers appetite. The later in the day that you consume sugar, the more likely it is that you will get food cravings late at night. Late-night food cravings are not a good thing!"
1) Protein stimulates insulin as much if not more than carbohydrates depending on what is ingested.
2) What makes late-night food cravings any worse than mid-morning food cravings?
I mean by this logic, you really shouldn't have that bowl of oatmeal in the morning because the earlier in the day that you consume sugar, the more likely it is that you will get food cravings early in the day! Except where Harper is all about him some fruit (sugar) and oatmeal (sugar) in the morning. So why is late at night so bad? I would argue if you're going by this logic, late-night food cravings would be better because you could just go to sleep. If it's mid-day you've got a long ways to go.
I was expecting to read something about how eating carbs at night means that you'll just store the carbs as fat because you'll be going to sleep and not expending any calories to burn it off. Which is false, you can eat carbs whenever you want, assuming you keep at or below your daily caloric needs. It's not like you fall asleep and suddenly your body stops working. Again, protein also raises insulin levels. This is not a bad thing. In fact, there is a whole diet regimen out there based around eating all your shitty carbs late at night.
Moral: It's not when you eat, it's how much you eat. If you feel like eating a piece of chocolate cake 30 minutes before bed and you are still under your calorie expenditure, you will still lose weight. Some people will get bad heart burn or acid reflux, but hey, whatever floats your boat.